How to Solve Clinical Challenges in Mood Disorders; Machine Learning Approaches Using Electrophysiological Markers
Young Wook Song1,*, Ho Sung Lee2,*, Sungkean Kim1,3, Kibum Kim3, Bin-Na Kim4, Ji Sun Kim5
1Department of Applied Artificial Intelligence, Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea
2Department of Pulmonology and Allergy, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, Korea
3Department of Human-Computer Interaction, Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea
4Department of Psychology, Gachon University, Seongnam, Korea
5Department of Psychiatry, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, Korea
Correspondence to: Ji Sun Kim
Department of Psychiatry, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, 31 Suncheonhyang 6-gil, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan 31151, Korea
E-mail: ideal91@hanmail.net
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2472-4591

*These authors contributed equally to this study.
Received: January 18, 2024; Revised: March 6, 2024; Accepted: April 1, 2024; Published online: May 3, 2024.
© The Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Differentiating between the diagnoses of mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders, and predicting treatment response in depression has long been a concern for clinicians. Machine learning (ML) is one part of artificial intelligence that focuses on instructing computers to mimic the cognitive abilities of the human brain through training. This study will review the research on the use of ML techniques to differentiate diagnoses and predict treatment responses in mood disorders based on electroencephalography (EEG) data. There have been several attempts to differentiate between the diagnoses of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder , mood disorders, and other psychiatric disorders using ML techniques found on EEG markers. Previous studies have shown that accuracy varies depending on which EEG markers are used, the sample size, and the ML technique. Also, precise and improved ML approaches can be developed by adapting the various feature selection and validation methods that reflect each disease’s characteristics. Although ML faces some limitations and challenges in solving for consistent and improved accuracy in the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders, it has a great potential to understand mood disorders better and provide valuable tools to personalize both identification and treatment.
Keywords: Electroencephalography; Machine learning; Bipolar disorder; Major depressive disorder; Diagnosis; Treatment response


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