Machine Learning and Deep Learning for the Pharmacogenomics of Antidepressant Treatments
Eugene Lin 1, 2, Chieh-Hsin Lin 2, Hsien-Yuan Lane 2*
1University of Washington, 2China Medical University
Received: February 2, 2021; Accepted: April 10, 2021; Published online: April 10, 2021.
© The Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

A growing body of evidence now proposes that machine learning and deep learning techniques can serve as a vital foundation for the pharmacogenomics of antidepressant treatments in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In this review, we focus on the latest developments for pharmacogenomics research using machine learning and deep learning approaches together with neuroimaging and multi-omics data. First, we review relevant pharmacogenomics studies that leverage numerous machine learning and deep learning techniques to determine treatment prediction and potential biomarkers for antidepressant treatments in MDD. In addition, we depict some neuroimaging pharmacogenomics studies that utilize various machine learning approaches to predict antidepressant treatment outcomes in MDD based on the integration of research on pharmacogenomics and neuroimaging. Moreover, we summarize the limitations in regard to the past pharmacogenomics studies of antidepressant treatments in MDD. Finally, we outline a discussion of challenges and directions for future research. In light of latest advancements in neuroimaging and multi-omics, various genomic variants and biomarkers associated with antidepressant treatments in MDD are being identified in pharmacogenomics research by employing machine learning and deep learning algorithms.
Keywords: antidepressants, artificial intelligence, biomarker, deep learning, genomics, machine learning, major depressive disorder, multi-omics, neuroimaging, pharmacogenomics, single nucleotide polymorphisms