Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2019; 17(2): 211-221  
Evaluation of Endothelial Dysfunction in Bipolar Affective Disorders: Serum Endocan and Urotensin-II Levels
Elif Oral1, Zekai Halici2, Irfan Cinar3, Elif Ozcan4, Zerrin Kutlu3
1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Izmir Katip Çelebi University, Izmir, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ataturk University, 4Department of Psychiatry, Erzurum Regional Education and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey
Correspondence to: Elif Oral, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Izmir Katip Çelebi University, Havaalanı Şosesi Cd. Aosb No:33 D:2, 35620 Çiğli/İzmir, Turkey
Tel: +90-232-244-44-44 (2481), E-mail:
Received: January 17, 2018; Revised: March 24, 2018; Accepted: April 22, 2018; Published online: May 31, 2019.
© The Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

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Objective: This study investigated changes in urotensin-II (U-II) and endocan levels which can be used as an early biological marker of endothelial injury in the episode and remission phases of bipolar affective disorder (BAD).
Methods: We compared endocan and U-II levels, which has been shown to be closely associated with neurotransmitter systems in addition to continuity of endothelial structure and inflammatory response, in patients with BAD in remission for at least one year (n=42) and in patients still in manic or depressive episodes (n=16) with healthy controls (n=30).
Results: Both endocan and U-II levels were significantly higher in the bipolar patients than in the controls. Endocan and U-II levels were also significantly correlated with one another (p =0.000, r=0.833). Both endocan (p =0.000) and U-II levels (p =0.000) were significantly higher in the bipolar attack group compared to the subjects in remission, and in the remission group compared to the controls.
Conclusion: In this study we determined significantly higher endocan and U-II levels in BAD compared to the controls, while serum endocan and U-II levels of patients undergoing attacks were also significantly higher than those of the controls and also those of patients in remission.
Keywords: Endocan; Urotensins; Bipolar disorder; Endothelial injury.

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