Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2019; 17(2): 200-210  
Predicting Behavior Problems in Korean Preschoolers: Interactions of the SLC6A4 Gene and Maternal Negative Affectivity
Junghee Ha1, Hey Jung Jun2, Hyewon Shin3, Ick Joong Chung4, Eunmie Park5, Sung Kil Min6, Eunjoo Kim1
1Department of Psychiatry and Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 2Department of Child and Family Studies, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, 3Department of Child Studies, Seokyeong University, 4Department of Social Welfare, Ewha Womans University, 5Department of Social Welfare, Seoul Jangsin University, Seoul, 6Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hyoja Geriatric Hospital, Yongin, Korea
Correspondence to: Eunjoo Kim, MD, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 211 Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06273, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2019-3345, Fax: +82-2-3462-4304, E-mail: ejkim96@yuhs.ac
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3061-2051
Received: January 3, 2018; Revised: March 22, 2018; Accepted: March 28, 2018; Published online: May 31, 2019.
© The Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether maternal negative affectivity (MNA) moderates the effect of genetic polymorphism of SLC6A4 on behavior problems in children.
Methods: Study participants comprised 143 preschoolers and their mothers from South Korea. The Childhood Behavior Checklist and Emotionality, Activity, and Sociability adult scale were used to measure child behavior and maternal affectivity. DNA from saliva was genotyped to determine serotonin transporter polymorphism.
Results: MNA appeared to exert effects in externalizing (b =5.78, p<0.001) and internalizing problems (b =6.09, p< 0.001). Interaction between SLCA4 polymorphism and MNA showed effects on externalizing (b =−7.62, p<0.01) and internalizing problems (b =−9.77, p<0.01). Children with two short alleles showed considerable differences in both externalizing and internalizing problems according to MNA; however, children with one short allele or none showed relatively few differences in behavior problems due to maternal affectivity.
Conclusion: The effect of SLC6A4 polymorphism on child behavior seemed to be moderated by MNA. In addition, the impact of MNA was found to vary based on a child’s genetic risk. High MNA may trigger the risk allele while low MNA causes the risk allele to illicit less behavior problems. Children with two short variants of the SLC6A4 gene may benefit from intervention that modulates MNA.
Keywords: Gene-environment interaction; SLC6A4 protein; Maternal behavior; Child behavior.


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