Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2018; 16(4): 489-493  
Modality-Specific Working Memory Systems Verified by Clinical Working Memory Tests
Eun-Hee Park1,2, Duk-In Jon1
1Department of Psychiatry, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, 2Department of Psychology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Duk-In Jon, MD, PhD
Department of Psychiatry, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 22 Gwanpyeong-ro 170beon-gil, Dongan-gu, Anyang 14068, Korea
Tel: +82-31-380-3752, Fax: +82-31-381-3751
Received: July 4, 2017; Revised: September 6, 2017; Accepted: September 10, 2017; Published online: November 30, 2018.
© The Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objective: This study was to identify whether working memory (WM) can be clearly subdivided according to auditory and visual modality. To do this, we administered the most recent and universal clinical WM measures in a mixed psychiatric sample.
Methods: A total of 115 patients were diagnosed on the basis of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and with MINI-Plus 5.0, a structured diagnostic interview. WM subtests of Korean version of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV and Korean version of Wechsler Memory Scale-IV were administered to assess WM. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to observe whether WM measures fit better to a one-factor or two-factor model.
Results: CFA results demonstrated that a two factor model fits the data better than one-factor model as expected.
Conclusion: Our study supports a modality model of WM, or the existence of modality-specific WM systems, and thus poses a clinical significance of assessing both auditory and visual WM tests.
Keywords: Modality-specific working memory; WAIS-IV; WMS-IV.

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