Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2018; 16(4): 461-468  
Predictors of Cognitive Improvement during 12 Weeks of Antidepressant Treatment in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Jeong-Ok Lee1, Ju-Wan Kim2, Hee-Ju Kang2, Jin-Pyo Hong3, Jae-Min Kim2
1Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 3Department of Psychiatry, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Jae-Min Kim, MD, PhD
Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, 160 Baekseo-ro, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61469, Korea
Tel: +82-62-220-6143, Fax: +82-62-225-2351
E-mail: jmkim@chonnam.ac.kr
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7409-6306
Received: February 1, 2018; Revised: March 18, 2018; Accepted: May 28, 2018; Published online: November 30, 2018.
© The Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Objective: Cognitive disturbance is one of the major symptoms of depression and may be improved by treatment with antidepressants. This study aimed to investigate the predictors of cognitive improvement in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who were taking antidepressants.
Methods: This study included 86 patients with MDD who completed 12 weeks of antidepressant monotherapy. Cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire-Korean version (PDQ-K), which addresses four domains of cognitive functioning (attention/concentration, retrospective memory, prospective memory, and organization/ planning) and was administered at study entry and at the 12-week end point. A variety of demographic, clinical, and treatment-related variables were evaluated as predictors of changes in total and domain scores.
Results: All PDQ-K domains showed significant improvement after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment. More severe initial depressive symptoms, fewer sick-leave days at study entry, and reduced use of concomitant anxiolytics/hypnotics during treatment were significantly associated with greater cognitive improvement.
Conclusion: Cognitive symptoms are more responsive to antidepressant treatment in patients with severe MDD. Reduced use of anxiolytics and hypnotics could improve the cognitive functioning of patients with MDD taking antidepressants.
Keywords: Depression; Cognition; Antidepressive agents; Prediction; Anti-anxiety agents.


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