Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2018; 16(4): 422-433  
From Gut to Brain: Alteration in Inflammation Markers in the Brain of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-induced Colitis Model Mice
Jongho Do1, Jungmin Woo1,2
1Department of Psychiatry, Kyungpook National University Hospital, 2Depatment of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea
Correspondence to: Jungmin Woo, MD, PhD
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 41944, Korea
Tel: +82-53-200-5747, Fax: +82-53-426-5361
Received: November 23, 2017; Revised: January 11, 2018; Accepted: January 12, 2018; Published online: November 30, 2018.
© The Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objective: Neuropsychiatric manifestations like depression and cognitive dysfunction commonly occur in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the context of the brain-gut axis model, colitis can lead to alteration of brain function in a bottom-up manner. Here, the changes in the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammation-related markers in the brain in colitis were studied.
Methods: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was used to generate a mouse model of colitis. Mice were treated with DSS for 3 or 7 days and sacrificed. We analyzed the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the expression of GFAP, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala. Additionally, the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum cortisol/corticosterone were measured.
Results: Alteration of inflammatory-related markers varied depending on the brain region and exposure time. In the hippocampus, COX-2 mRNA, GFAP mRNA, and GFAP expression were upregulated during exposure to DSS. However, in the hypothalamus, COX-2 mRNA was upregulated only 3 days after treatment. In the amygdala, BDNF and COX-2 mRNAs were downregulated. CRP and corticosterone expression increased with DSS treatment at day 7.
Conclusion: IBD could lead to neuroinflammation in a bottom-up manner, and this effect varied according to brain region. Stress-related hormones and serum inflammatory markers, such as CRP, were upregulated from the third day of DSS treatment. Therefore, early and active intervention is required to prevent psychological and behavioral changes caused by IBD, and region-specific studies can help understand the precise mechanisms by which IBD affects the brain.
Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease; Dextran sodium sulfate; Neuroinfalmmation; Cyclooxygenase 2; Glial fibrillary acidic protein; Brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

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