Increased Serum G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor 1(GPER1) Levels and Its Diagnostic Value in Drug Na?ve Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Ebru Fındıklı 1*, Erg?l Belge Kuruta? 1, Mehmet Akif Camkurt 2, Mehmet Fatih Karaaslan 1, Filiz ?zci 3, H?seyin Avni Fındıklı 4, Sel?uk Karda? 1, Berat Dag 1, Hatice Altun 1
1S?t?? ?mam University,Kahramanmaras,Turkey, 2Af?in State Hospital, Kahramanmaras, Turkey, 3Bilim University, ?stanbul, Turkey, 4Adıyaman University, Adıyaman, Turkey
Received: September 5, 2016; Revised: October 13, 2016; Accepted: October 26, 2016; Published online: October 26, 2016.
© The Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Objective:The facts that depression is more prevalent in females than in males and females are exposed to depression more commonly during certain hormonal fluctuating periods indicate the role of sex hormones in physiopathology. Estrogen acts over estrogen receptors alpha and beta and recently identified G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1). The present study aimed, for the first time, to evaluate serum GPER1 levels in drug-naive major depressive disorder (MDD) patients.
Methods:The study included 56 newly diagnosed drug-naive MDD patients aged between 18 and 50 years and 42 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Medical history was obtained and physical examinations, laboratory tests, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) were performed. The serum GPER1 levels were measured.
Results:The HAM-D score was significantly higher in the MDD patients than in the controls. The GPER1 level was significantly higher in the MDD patients than in the controls. A positive correlation was found with GPER1 levels and depression scores. The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value as 82.1%, 90.5%, 92.0%, and 79.2%, respectively, for the presence of depression, when the serum GPER1 value was ≥0.16.
Conclusion:This study demonstrated significantly higher serum GPER1 levels in the MDD patients than in the controls, a positive correlation was found between GPER1 levels and depression scores and serum GPER1 level was valuable in predicting the presence of depression.
Keywords: G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), major depressive disorder, estrogen, diagnostic value


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