Higher Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Child-Adolescent Patients with Bipolar Disorder
Satyajit Mohite 1, 2*, Hanjing Wu 1, 2, Shiva Sharma 1, Luca Lavagnino 1, 2, Cristian P. Zeni 1, 2, Terrence T. Currie 1, Jair C. Soares 1, 2, Teresa A. Pigott 1, 2
1UT Harris County Psychiatric Center, Houston, Texas, USA 77021 , 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA 77054
Received: November 21, 2019; Revised: January 18, 2020; Accepted: February 7, 2020; Published online: February 7, 2020.
© The Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Objectives:
Previous studies have indicated a convergent and bidirectional relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and bipolar disorder (BD). As most of these studies focused mainly on adults diagnosed with BD, our study aims to investigate and characterize metabolic disturbances in child-adolescents diagnosed with BD.
Methods:
We retrospectively examined the medical records of psychiatric hospitalizations with admitting diagnosis of BD in child-adolescents (age <18). Body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, and blood pressure were primary variables. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria were used to define MetS. Reference group data was obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) study. Statistical analyses included t-tests, Chi-square tests, and Fisher’s Exact tests.
Results:
We identified 140 child-adolescent patients with BD (mean age= 15.12 ± 1.7 years, 53% male). MetS was significantly more common in BD compared to the reference group: 14% [95% CI: 8-20 versus 6.7 % (CI: 4.1-9.2), p=0.001] with no significant difference by sex. MetS components were higher in the BD group, particularly BMI ≥95% (25% vs. 11.8%, p < 0.001) and high blood pressure (17% vs. 8%, p= 0.05). Moreover, female patients had lower odds of high blood pressure [OR=0.24 (CI 0.08-0.69), p=0.005].
Conclusions:
Compared with the general child-adolescent population, the prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in patients with BD of same age. This reiterates the notion of an increased risk of MetS in patients diagnosed with BD; and thus, further exploration is warranted.
Keywords: Bipolar disorder, Metabolic syndrome, Child-Adolescents, BMI, Lipid profile, Fasting blood glucose


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