Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 2019; 17(4): 517-522  
Determination of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case Control Study
Yasemin Taş Torun1, Esra Güney2, Arzu Aral3, Dicle Büyüktaşkin2, Hüseyin Tunca4, Yasemen Işik Taner2, Elvan İşeri2
1Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Gulhane Education and Training Hospital, 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, 3Department of Immunology, Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara, 4Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Diyarbakır Education and Training Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey
Correspondence to: Yasemin Taş Torun
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Gulhane Education and Training Hospital, Emrah, Gen. Dr. Tevfik Sağlam Cd No:11 D:No:11, Keçiören/Ankara 06010, Turkey
Received: January 31, 2019; Revised: April 15, 2019; Accepted: June 19, 2019; Published online: November 30, 2019.
© The Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objective: The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on neuronal development is known, but its relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder, has not yet been fully elucidated. To our knowledge, this is the first human study investigating serum VEGF levels in ADHD patients. In this study, it has been aimed to compare serum VEGF levels between a healthy control group and in ADHD patients to help determine the association between serum VEGF levels and ADHD.
Methods: This study sample included forty-four patients diagnosed with ADHD and 43 healthy volunteer controls between 7 to 14 years old. Blood samples were taken from patients and the healthy control group to assess their serum VEGF levels. VEGF levels were calculated by subjecting the optical densities of the samples to concentrations of known standards as provided in the ELISA kit and then performing a regression correlation analysis.
Results: The mean VEGF level of the children was 333.6 ± 209.8 in the ADHD group and 341.3 ± 201.8 in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in serum VEGF levels between the ADHD and control groups (U = 926.000, z = −0.170, p = 0.865).
Conclusion: There was no significant difference in serum VEGF levels for untreated ADHD cases and a healthy control group. This is the first human study investigating serum VEGF levels in ADHD patients, so there is a need to replicate these findings.
Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Children.

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